Monthly Archives: December 2008


Kanpur, the largest industrial city in Uttar Pradesh with a total area of 261 square kilometers, is located

Drainage in the river Ganga at Kanpur

Drainage in the river Ganga at Kanpur

about 435 kilometers east of New Delhi.  Kanpur is boarded by the river Ganges to the north and the river Pandu to the south. The census of 1991 give the population at 1.9 million; in 2001, the population rose to 2.5 million.  Kanpur is divided into six administrative zones, which are further sub-divided into 100 wards (election wards).  Per capita income of Kanpur is about Rs. 850.

The most important industrial activity in Kanpur is its tanning industries.  Kanpur had previously been an important center for the textile industry with approximately 30 large textile mills.  Most of these mills, however, have been closed.  Only three mills are still in production.  Currently, there are approximately 70 medium to large-scale industries and more than 5000 small scale industries.  Approximately 350 tanneries with different capacities are located at Jajmau in the eastern part of the city.  Production capacities of the tanneries are as follows: 225 tanneries process less than 50 hides per day; 113 tanneries process 50-200 hides per day; 10 tanneries process 200-300 hides per day; and 6 tanneries process more than 300 hides per day.  There are 52 split leather producers.  A number of tanneries (at least 40) are temporarily out of operation either for not possessing a preliminary effluent treatment plant or for low business profits.

A major problem regarding traffic is that there are no bridges.  One bridge is under construction at this time therefore most traffic floods over the railroad crossings, which run parallel to the main road and divides the city into two parts.  In the northern part of the city, the area is quite developed.  However the area to the right is underdeveloped.  We are in the process of constructing a sewer system for this area.  Nearly 40% of the area has been covered, however a pumping station is still required and will be ready in approximately two years time (2003).

Drainage in the river Ganga at Kanpur

Drainage in the river Ganga at Kanpur

There was no sewage system in the southern part of the city, leading to the discharge of sewage into the Pandu river.  Similarly, sewage was not 100% treated in the north and because of many open drains, sewage was discharged into the Ganga river causing pollution.  In 1985, the government of India instituted a project called the Ganga Action Plan to address the problem of water pollution.  The activities in the Ganga Action Plan are nearly 30% complete.  The renovation of existing sewage treatment plants has been taken care of through the Ganga Action Plan.

Kanpur has 110 works with two links: the administrative and elected.  The elected link is headed by the mayor and 110 boards, with each board electing one member.  They are nominated by state governors, with a total of 120 corporation members and one mayor.  One hundred and fifty mayors and the MP and MLA, members of the legislative assembly and members of Parliament, are elected official members of the corporation.  On the administrative side is the chief executive under which the entire administrative system works.  Kanpur possesses two main textile mills, five ordinance factories, and six main tanneries.  The problem for Kanpur is providing a clean environment for the city as well as solid waste management.  Additionally, because the per capita income is very low, it is difficult to provide the facilities required by the citizens.  Only 200 million rupees are available as a surplus for development purposes.  With the closure of the textile mills, there is an increase in the number of tanneries from 250 three years ago to 350.  With the increase in industrial activities, there has been an increase in industrial waste.

Primary collection of solid waste is the duty of the health department, who are also responsible for the control of epidemics, preventive measures for different diseases, hospital administration and food control.  The department also acts as additional inspectors of factories in their respective zones.  Garbage is deposited in rubbish depots of various sized and makes (120 cement and concrete rubbish depots, 65 8.5 cu meter iron containers, 120 6.5 cu meter iron containers, 820 1 cu and 0.75 cu meter iron containers).  We have provided mechanized lifting of garbage in the last 3 years (tractors, tippers, loaders, hydraulic vehicles).

Per capita generation of solid waste is approximately 400 Gms per day.  With the additional floating population of 0.2 million, generation totals about 1,100 MT per day.  Secondary collection for waste is the responsibility of the Director City Cleansing.  There are four vehicle depots in the following areas of the city: Panki, Fazal Ganj, Bhagwat Dass Ghat, and Jajmau.  The fleet consists of 20 loaders, 55 tippers, 4 dumpers (Biz size carrier vehicle, 8.5 cum), 16 small size carrier dumpers (6.5 cum), 12 tractors, 7 DCM, 1 dozer, 1 bulldozer (chain drive), 3 JCB, and 3 RC big refuse collectors.  Waste is collected and dumped at Panki landfill where at present no treatment is conducted because of the high cost (Rs. 50/MT).

In order to streamline solid waste management in Class I cities with a population of more than 0.1 million,

Lather factory's on the bank of Ganga, in the Kanpur

Lather factory's on the bank of Ganga, in the Kanpur

the Supreme Court of India appointed a committee to study the various problems of management, with the submission of a report in March 1999.  On the recommendation of the committee, the Supreme Court has fixed a time schedule for different important activities and laid down norms and standards of output of sanitary staff.  The directions sanctified in the framing rules were published in the Gazette of India to invite objections from the public.  After considering the objections, these rules were finalized and published for implementation from 25 September 2000.  The rules apply to every municipal authority responsible for collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid waste.  Every municipal authority shall, within the territorial area of the municipality, be responsible for the implementation of the provision of the rules, and for any infrastructure development for collection, storage, segregation, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid waste.  Uttar Pradesh plastic and other non-biodegradable garbage ordinance of July 2000 prohibits the littering of non-biodegradable waste in public drains and sewerage system.  The ordinance prohibits the use of recycled plastic for food packaging purposes.  Plastic below 20 micron thickness is prohibited altogether.

The second problem in Kanpur is that of biomedical waste.  An incinerator facility has been provided in most government hospitals, however there is a group of nearly 70 private persons who have established an incinerator facility themselves.  KNN is working on guidelines for the Supreme Court of India.  Regulations cover the following: hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, dispensaries, veterinary institutions, animal houses, pathological laboratories, and blood banks and require that the above take all steps to ensure that such waste is handled without any adverse effect on human health or the environment.

Hazardous waste is also a problem.  KNN has identified a dumping site at Rooma, about 12-15 km away from the tanning industries and sewage treatment plants.  The generation of hazardous waste containing chromium is about 10-15 MT per day.  Engineers India Limited has been deputed as an expert by the Ganga ICD Project (a Dutch funded project) to prepare a DPR of hazardous waste at Rooma.  Preliminary work has already begun by the EIL; they are expected to submit the DPR by 15 December 2001.  The Central Leather Research Institute in Madras conducted a study and began a pilot project in mid-1997.  Industries were established according to the project and 98% of chromium was recovered.  Taking a lesson from this, most industries have taken up similar projects and have been successful in recycling resources.  There must be a common recovery plant for those who are not able to afford this individually.  KNN is ready to provide them 25% of their requirements.  Additional funds would be provided by the government from a revolving fund with a payback schedule of 7 years.

Human dead body abandonment in the Ganga

Municipal Solid Waste Based Power Project at Kanpur: Features of project: plant capacity (21.6 MW); daily feed (1000 MT/day MSW); technology and tie-up (gasification, M/s Bright Star Environ, Australia, wholly owned subsidiary of M/s EDL Australia); total project cost (Rs. 2442.2 million).

Dutch Grant Under Ganga Action Plan: Three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are in operation in Kanpur.  All three plants are located in the same area near Jajmau, on the eastern side of the city.  There are two WWTPs of the upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) type; construction funded by the Indo-Dutch programme.

5 MLD UASB WWTP: This plant is designed for treatment of 5,000 m3/d of domestic wastewater.  The plant functions at full capacity, but it also receives some tannery effluent, which has to be discontinued, since the tannery wastewater has adverse effects on the UASB process and on the quality of the sludge, which is used in agriculture.

36 MLD UASB WWTP: This plant is designed for treatment of 36,000 m3/d of mixed tannery and domestic wastewater.  The tannery effluent, 8,000-9,000 m3/d, passes through fine and coarse screens into two circular equalization tanks with Venturi aeration.  The domestic wastewater, maximum flow of 27,000-28,000m3/d, passes through similar type fine screen (3 mm slot width).  The tannery effluent and the domestic wastewater are mixed, and distributed by means of 4 pumps over 2 parallel UASB reactors, with a retention time of 8 hours.

130 MDL WWTP: This plant is designed for treatment of 130,000 m3/d of domestic wastewater, consisting of primary sedimentation tanks, aeration tanks (surface aeration), clarifiers, sludge digestion and mechanical sludge dewatering.  The effluent is pumped into the channel to the sewage farm. The plant is in operation from 1999; final effluent BOD is generally below 30 mg/I.

200 MLD UASB WWTP (in preparation): The construction of a fourth WWTP is in preparation.  The design capacity of the plant is 200,00 m3/d of domestic wastewater.  The plant is located in the south Drainage District, near the point where the COD Nala flows into the Pandu River.  The design influent BOD is 230 mg/I, and the BOD Standard for the final effluent is 30 mg/I.  The treated effluent will be used for irrigation, or be discharged into the Pandu River.  The projected lands for irrigation are on the other side of the Pandu River.

Low Cost Sanitation Scheme: 2430 off-site toilets, beneficiaries (12490); 2366 on-site beneficiaries (12161); Community toilet – 12 (140 seats), beneficiaries (7000); Sewer Connections – 14287, beneficiaries (73487); Total beneficiaries – 105,088; 49 community toilet complexes are under construction, beneficiaries (33,000).

Expenditure: Primary Collection = 2869.00; Secondary Collection = 173.00; Workshop = 49.00; Tools & Equipment to Primary Collection = 84.00; Tools & Equipment to secondary collection = 180.00; Fuel & Oil = 213.00; Maintenance & Repairs = 51.00; Total = 3619.00

Courtesy By- Mr. G.K.Tandon, Kanpur.

China’s future water war with India ! By – Hari Sud

Toronto, ON, Canada, — Is there any end to Chinese ambitions in Asia? China wishes to dominate Asia with blockades, blockages, military diplomacy and political Machiavellism. China’s building of the port of Gwadar at the mouth of the Persian Gulf in fact is meant to blockade the oil supplies of the world. Its military diplomacy is on display at the Tibet-India border, where for the last ten years it has strengthened its military infrastructure to intimidate India. In its blockage diplomacy, it is planning to divert the flow of the River Brahmaputra, also called the Tsandpo in Tibet, toward China’s northeast, hence in the process starve 100 million people in India.

With a US$2 trillion economy, 1.3 billion souls and a $1,600 per capita GDP, the Chinese consider themselves wealthy. To them India is a poor rival, although India has a US$1 trillion economy, $1,000 per capita GDP and a superior and faster-growing technological sector than China. The Chinese think of India as a minor opponent. Their friendship with Pakistan is a Machiavellian tactic to checkmate India.

The scheme to block and divert the River Brahmaputra shows the Chinese do not care about others, only about themselves. The scheme is foolhardy to begin with. Its environmental impact on Tibet’s economy, ecology and culture is of no consequence to them, however. All they need is additional water to flush the rapidly silting Three Gorges Dam and provide water to the parched northeast.

Water !

Water !

The net consequence on India will be a manmade disaster. If 50 percent of the river’s water, which flows through the center of India’s northeastern state of Assam, is taken out, the river will become a seasonal ditch. One hundred million souls in India and Bangladesh will lose their livelihood. It will surely start a big new dispute between the two rivals and could eventually lead to a shooting war.

The river begins its journey in the glacier country of western Tibet in close proximity to the sources of other mighty rivers — the Indus and Sutlej. Its origin is not far from the Indian border in Tibet, in the holy land of Lake Mansrovar and Mount Kailash. The Tsandpo-Brahmaputra travels west for 1,500 kilometers, hugging the northern slopes of the Himalayas through Tibet.

All along its journey it gathers more water and sustains life in Tibet. Because of its remoteness, it has long gone unexplored. The river skirts the last of the Himalayan ranges and turns south into India into Arunachal Pradesh. It later turns west into the plains of the Indian state of Assam. Multiple smaller rivers join it in Arunachal Pradesh to make it into a huge water resource. At about this place the pre-rainy season flow averages well above 120,000 cubic feet per second, rising to 1million cubic feet per second during the heavy monsoon rains.

The Tsandpo begins its long journey at about 13,000 feet and drops to about 5,000 feet in eastern Tibet, before it enters India. Through a series of mysterious falls and gorges, the river manages to drop to about 1,000 feet and then to 500 feet in Assam state. The water flow before the river enters Arunachal Pradesh is about 60,000 cubic feet per second. It is mostly fresh glacial water.

As the river meanders thru Arunachal Pradesh it receives additional water from its tributaries and then in Assam from the discharge of other streams. The 1 million cubic feet per second flow of the Brahmaputra during the rainy season is due to the topography of the land. All the rainfall in the Assam hills is discharged into this river, making it at places 10 kilometers wide. This area is known for the highest rainfall in the world, leading at times to massive flooding in Assam and Bangladesh. Flooding brings misery, but it is also welcomed as it deposits rich nutrients for better crops the following year.

Ever since they occupied Tibet, the Chinese have viewed the Tsandpo-Brahmaputra River as a source of hydroelectric power and a new source of water for the Yangtze River and parched northeast China. Numerous rafting expeditions by the Chinese military were mounted to explore the river, prior to its entry into the deep gorges in India. They were looking for a suitable site to divert the river.

The first hint of this scheme came out in official Chinese newspapers in the 1990s, confirming its intent. A Chinese-inspired paper in Scientific American in June 1996 also confirmed it. The Chinese wished to use the tremendous drop in elevation of about 8,000 feet to generate electricity. According to the Chinese account, 40,000 megawatts could be generated.

Just before it enters India, the river would be diverted through a network of canals, tunnels and pipelines to China’s parched mainland. All the electricity generated would be needed to pump the river into the new system. The advantage to the Chinese would be that the parched northwest may become fertile. Any remaining water could join the Yangtze River to inhibit silting in the Three Gorges Dam.

This scheme is twice as big as the Three Gorges Dam. About half the total capital of about US$40 billion will go to power generation and the rest into dams, diversion canals, pipelines and tunnels. The power generation capital is a net waste, as not 1 kilowatt will benefit the Tibetan populace. All of it will be needed to pump the water through the system.

The Chinese do not undertake any environmental or socioeconomic studies on large projects, lest they discover any negative impact on the environment and people. That is how they built the Three Gorges Dam, against the advice of environmentalists on locating it in a high seismic region. A major earthquake could knock this dam down or damage it. The floods that would follow could bring death and destruction to 200 million people.

The Tsandpo project could bring similar damage to the ecology and people, as well as possible confrontation with India, making it not worth the effort. But the Chinese do not care.

The impact on India and Bangladesh would be tremendous. Assam and part of Bangladesh would lose the capability to grow food. A massive migration toward the rest of India would follow. A wave of 100 million homeless people moving toward India would overwhelm it. India would surely move to prevent this from happening, and a military confrontation could begin.

In this foolhardy scheme the Chinese have counted on their financial and military muscle. They regard India, as stated above, as a poor rival. But with the livelihood of 100 million people impacted, India would muster its own financial, technological and commercial muscle and come out fighting with vigor. This confrontation could be far bigger than the present India-China territorial dispute over the possession of the Tawang tract.

In this scenario, India would have many supporters of its cause. In general, the blocking of naturally flowing rivers has not been taken kindly in human history. The world will support India. China will have a lone supporter in Pakistan.

Today’s Chinese leadership is obstinate, headstrong and overconfident of its prowess. This confidence will have to be tested, if necessary, militarily. A shooting war may follow an attempt to divert the river. In a war of short duration China would have the advantage of better infrastructure close to the border. In a broader, drawn-out war, China would be at a disadvantage as its Tibet rail and road links could be interdicted and the Tibetan population inflamed to expel the Chinese from their land. It may become a lose-lose situation for China.

Before a shooting war began, India could make its intentions known by a display of its own military prowess in the border region and in the Indian Ocean. India would have international law on its side.

U.S. and Russian support would be critical in this situation. The United States could tie down Chinese forces on their eastern seaboard opposite Taiwan, and the Russians along the Ussuri River border. As far as Pakistan is concerned, it would have to be prevented from making mischief along India’s western border. U.S. support would be needed to keep Pakistan in check.

In summary, a bigger dispute may emerge along the India-Tibet border in the form of Chinese mischief. Let us hope that sane counsel prevails within the Chinese ruling clique and the country does not embark upon the Tsandpo River diversion project.

Courtesy By – Hari Sud

(Hari Sud is a retired vice president of C-I-L Inc., a former investment strategies analyst and international relations manager. A graduate of Punjab University and the University of Missouri, he has lived in Canada for the past 34 years. © Copyright Hari Sud.)


hello guys,

we use plastic carry bags very often.reason is simple,these plastic bags are easily avilable.we buy something n shopkeeper gives it in plastic bag. but what we do after coming home, we just throw that plastic bag in dustbin (some people might be using that again, which is good!!) now how many of us know, these plastic bags are more dangerous than global warming……

yes it’s true. recent study shows that very large usage of plastic bags(about 500 billion per year!) causes great pollution and drastic change in nature cycles. Plastic thrown on land can enter into drainage lines and chokes them resulting into floods in local areas in cities as experienced in Mumbai.
eating plastic bags results in death of 100 cattles per day in U.P. in India.
more than 100000 marine mammals die each year in the world’s oceans by eating or becoming entangled in plastic rubbish, Plastics may remain in the stomachs, blocking digestion and possibly causing starvation.

Turtles are particularly badly affected by plastic pollution, and all seven of the world’s turtle species are already endangered for a number of reasons. Turtles get entangled in fishing nets, and many sea turtles have been found dead with plastic bags in their stomachs.Turtles mistake floating transperent plastic bags for jellyfish and eat them.

biggest problem with plastic bags is that they do not readily break down in the environment, with estimates for the time it takes them to decompose ranging from 20 to 1000 years. Do you know that hardly 1 % of the plastic bags are recycled. . because plastic does not decompose, and requires high energy ultra-violet light to break down, the amount of plastic waste in our oceans is steadily increasing.

The reason for telling this all is we have to minimize the usage of plastic bags.please I request you all to use the plastic bags as less as possible. if you are going to buy something, keep canvas or paper bag with not take plastic bags from shopkeeper during shopping because this increases the usage of plastic bags.actually this is so simple to carry a bag with you always, instead of doing pollution(by using plastic bags)using paper or canvas bags is always benifitial because they can be recycled or decomposed easily.let me tell you another interesting thing that, we can minimize the total usage of plastic bags by 9-10 millions per year if we want to save the earth from pollution.
So any shopkeeper is offering you a plastic carry bag after shopping tell him loudly and proudly “NO I DON’T WANT THIS, I HAVE BAG WITH ME.”

River Yamuna full of plastic bags at Delhi

River Yamuna full of plastic bags at Delhi !

Belive me, you will feel really proud because you are doing something good for your mother earth !

– by- Vipul Buwa

“कोसी की तकदीर लिखने से पहले !” – सझिया समांग.

कोशीमैया !

कोसीमैया !

कोसीवासी फिर उसी तिराहे पर खडे हैं, जहां तकरीबन पचपन साल पहले थे। उन दिनों जोर-शोर से बहस हुआ करती थी कि आखिर इस चंचल नदी का क्या उपाय किया जाय? क्या बराज और तटबंध के जरिए कोसी को काबू में किया जा सकता है? या बराह क्षेत्र में प्रस्तावित हाई डैम ही इस समस्या का एकमात्र समाधान है। या फिर जैसा कि पर्यावरण के जानकार कहा करते हैं, इस चंचल नदी को यूं ही छोड दिया जाय और इसके कोप से तालमेल बिठाकर जीने की कोशिश की जाय।

हालांकि हमारी सरकार ने असफल बराज और तटबंधों के बीच इस शरारती नदी को फिर से कैद करने का फैसला ले लिया है, यह जानने के बावजूद कि बराज और तटबंध 25 साल पहले ही एक्सपायर हो चुके हैं। हमारे इलाके की अच्छी खासी आबादी, खास तौर पर वे लोग जिनके इलाके में इस बार कोसी ने तबाही मचाई है सरकार के इस फैसले से सहमत नजर आते हैं। उनकी नजर में बराज कभी एक्सपायर हुआ ही नहीं। यह भीषणतम हादसा इंजीनियरों-ठेकेदारों की लापरवाही और हठधर्मिता के कारण हुआ। दरअसल इन लोगों ने बराज बनने के बाद की 50 साल की निश्चिंतता को जीया है। हालांकि इस दौरान भी कई बार तटबंध टूटे और भीषण बाढें भी आईं, पर नदी के रास्ता बदलने की खतरनाक अदा से मुक्ति मिल गई थी। मगर ये लोग इस नदी के साथ आने वाली सिल्ट की भीषण समस्या से या तो अनजान हैं या किसी सुपर-नेचुरल सरकारी तुक्के से इसके समाधान की उम्मीद लगा बैठे हैं। जबकि इसी गाद के कारण कई सालों से बराज नाकाम पड़ा है और 9 लाख क्यूसेक तक का बहाव झेल चुका तटबंध इस बार डेढ-पौने दो लाख

बाढ क प्रभाव

बाढ का प्रभाव

क्यूसेक दबाव नहीं बरदाश्त कर पाया। इसके बावजूद अगर सिल्ट की सफाई कराए बगैर कोसी नदी को फिर से तटबंधों के बीच से इसी बराज के रास्ते गुजारने की कोशिश की गई तो हमें और हमारी सरकार को अगले साल फिर से ऐसी तबाही के लिए तैयार रहना होगा। अगर सरकार के पास सचमुच सिल्ट की सफाई की कोई योजना है तो इसे भी सबके सामने आना चाहिए। क्योंकि बराज के अंदर इतना सिल्ट जमा हो चुका है कि जेसीबी मशीन और गाडियों के जरिये इसकी सफाई में लंबा समय लग सकता है।

इस उधेडबुन वाली स्थिति में कई लोग स्थाई समाधान के नाम पर फिर से बराह क्षेत्र में प्रस्तावित हाई डैम की वकालत करने लगे हैं। यह डैम 60-65 साल से प्रस्तावित है, मगर इस पर काम शुरू नहीं किया जा सका क्योंकि यह परियोजना काफी महंगी थी। मगर कभी इस परियोजना को नकारा नहीं गया और इसकी तुलना में बराज को हमेशा तात्कालिक समाधान ही माना जाता रहा। बराज के निर्माण के वक्त भी सबसे आशावादी विशेषज्ञ ने भी इसकी उम्र 25 साल से अधिक नहीं आंकी थी। मगर उस वक्त जिन कारणों से हाई डैम परियोजना को स्थगित कर दिया गया था वे आज भी मौजूद हैं। आज की तारीख में इस परियोजना की लागत तकरीबन 1 लाख करोड़ रु. है। कहा जा रहा है कि इस परियोजना से काफी बिजली बनेगी। जापान की एक वित्तीय एजेंसी इसमें पैसा लगाने के लिए भी तैयार है। मगर इस डैम से उत्पादित होने

पिणे लायक पानी नही रहा !

पीने लायक पानी नही रहा !

वाली बिजली भी काफी महंगी होगी। इसके अलावा बराह क्षेत्र भूकंप प्रभावित जोन में पडता है, ऐसे में अगर यह हाई डैम बन भी गया तो हमेशा एक भीषण आपदा का संकट मंड़राता रहेगा और वह आपदा मौजूदा आपदा से कहीं बड़ी होगी। इस डैम के बारे में एक और दीगर तथ्य यह है कि आज की तारीख में अगर इसका निर्माण शुरू करवा भी दिया जाय तो इसे पूरा होने में लगभग बीस साल का समय लगेगा। लिहाजा इस परियोजना को स्वीकारने और नकारने के बीच बहस की लंबी गुंजाइश है।

अब बांध विरोधी पर्यावरणविदों का रास्ता यानि कोसी नदी के साथ सहजीवन का प्रयास। इन लोगों का मानना है कि नदी के सिल्ट लाने की क्षमता को नकारात्मक नजरिये से नहीं देखा जाना चाहिए, क्योंकि इस सिल्ट के जरिये भावी पीढि़यों के लिए अच्छी जमीन का निर्माण हो रहा है। इन विशेषज्ञों की यह बात भी सच है कि अगर नदी को आजाद छोड़ दिया जाय तो कभी इतने बडे हादसे होंगे ही नहीं। मगर यह पूरी तरह सच नहीं कि अगर सालाना बाढ़ से तालमेल बिठाकर जीना सीख लिया जाय तो समस्या रहेगी ही नहीं। कोसी नदी की समस्या सिर्फ बाढ की नहीं है यह इसके बारबार रास्ता बदलने और इसके बाद जमीन को परती बना देने की भी है। हर 30-35 सालों में यह रास्ता बदल लेती है, जिसके कारण जानमाल की व्यापक क्षति होती है। हालांकि लोगों को अब याद नहीं पर 1930 के आसपास जब इसने रास्ता बदला था तो सुपौल का नाथनगर कस्बा पूरी तरह तबाह हो गया था। क्या नदी के साथ सहजीवन का अर्थ यह भी है कि हमें ऐसे हादसों के लिए तैयार रहना पड़ेगा।

खेती भी बह गई !

खेती भी बह गई !

ऐसे में इन इलाकों में कोई पुल नहीं होगा, कोई सडक या रेल नहीं होगी, बिजली नहीं होगी, जैसा कि कोसी नदी के दोनों तटबंधों के बीच के गांवों में आज भी हो रहा है। इक्कीसवीं सदी के विकसित भारत में ऐसे हालात में जीना कौन चाहेगा?

ऐसा नहीं कि हम इनमें से हर उपाय से पूरी तरह असहमत हैं। दरअसल अपने जीवन की कीमत पर हमें हर उपाय अधूरा ही लगता है। खास तौर पर उन हालातों में जब सरकार हमसे पूछे बगैर हमारी किस्मत का फैसला कर चुकी है। हमारा सिर्फ इतना कहना है कि बहस होनी चाहिए, पीडितों की राय भी ली जानी चाहिए। ऐसे में याद आता है आजादी के बाद की बिहार सरकार का वह फैसला जिसके तहत कोसी की पूरी बाढ पीडित आबादी को झारखंड के रामगढ़ में बसाने की योजना बनी थी। आज हम इसे तुगलकी फरमान कहकर इस पर हंस सकते हैं, मगर इस योजना में कम से कम हमलोगों के प्रति सरकार की संवेदना तो झलकती थी। आजादी के बाद लगभग आठ साल बहस चलने के बाद बराज और तटबंध के निर्माण का फैसला लिया गया, मगर इस बार सक्षम लोगों की चुप्पी बहुत अखरने वाली है।

सहयोग का हात !

सहयोग का हात !

सझिया समांग के साथी – कोसी पुनर्निमाण अभियान का कोसी अंचल की एक छोटी सी संस्था सझिया समांग ने यह असंभव सा लगने वाला सपना देखा है। इसके स्वयंसेवक फिलहाल सुपौल जिले के प्रतापगंज ब्लाक के कुछ गांवों में इसी कोशिश में जुटे हैं। आप उन्हें इस पते पर सम्पर्क कर सकते हैं।

डाक पता
सझिया समांग
द्वारा- श्री ए.के. मिश्रा
महाराणा प्रताप चौक के पास
गौतमनगर, गंगीयाला,
ई मेल:


‘जल ही जीवन है’

सुना था जल ही जीवन है,
पर बिहार में जल ही जल था,
जीवन के लिए त्राहि-त्राहि थी।
एक छत पर लेटा आदमी सपना देख रहा था,
कि उसके जीवन में खुशियों की बाढ़ आ गई।
परन्तु कोसी की बाढ़ ने आज उसकी आड़ तक ले ली।
अब उसके घर में बची है, उसकी बच्ची अकेली।
बच्ची पांच साल की है, वह तो पानी से खेलती थी।
परन्तु वह क्या जाने , कि इस पानी ने क्या खेला।
इस पानी की खातिर उसके परिवार और बिहार ने क्या झेला।
उसकी जुबां पर तो सिर्फ मां-मां है।
पर ये तो किसी को नहीं पता, कि पानी के इस भीषण बहाव में, उसकी मां कहां है।
लो अब बचाव वाले खाना ले आये।
खाने के लिए भगदड़ मची,
और बेचारी बच्ची उसमें फंसी।
कहीं से एक दाना पाकर, वह खाने के लिए ढूंढ रही है मां के हाथों को ।
पर जैसे ही पानी में हाथ डालती है,
वह पाती है बड़े-बड़े सांपों को ।
हे पानी ये तू है या कोई और,
जिसने छीना है कइयों का ठौर।
अब क्या बचा, एक बूढ़ी मां चिल्ला रही है।
अब तो उसकी प्यारी गाय भी, पानी में बहती जा रही है।
बड़े-बड़े जहाज ऊपर से मंडराते हैं।
बड़े-बड़े नेता टीवी पर लोगों को समझाते हैं।
पर क्या किसी ने इन लोगों के दिल को टटोला?
क्या बहा, क्या रहा, क्या होगा, इसको राजनीति से हटकर तोला।
ऐ मेरे दोस्तों क्या तुम भी, संवेदना से शून्य हो चुके हो ?
बहुत कुछ न खोते हुए भी, तुम बिहार के हजारों बंधु-बांधव खो चुके हो।
अब खोलो आंखें, बढ़ाओ हाथ।
दो उनका साथ, जो हो गये अनाथ।
जिन्होंने खोया है,बाढ़ में सब कुछ।
दिल में लगा है, आघात जिनके सचमुच।
ये अपनी हैं मांएं, ये अपने हैं भाई।
हैं कुछ कारण, जिससे इन पर ये स्थिति बन आई।
अब तो न तूम मूक दर्शक बनो,
भीतर से कुछ आवाजें सुनो।

मोहित कुमार पांडेय भोपाल में पत्रकारिता की पढाई कर रहे हैं. बिहार में बाढ की खबरें पढते, सुनते और देखते हुए वे बेचैन हैं. उन्होंने बाढ को करीब से देखा है और पानी होते जीवन में कई बार मौत से आंखें मिलाई हैं. उनका दर्द इस कविता में जाहिर होता है.


सभी छबीया गंगाजल नेचर फौंडेशन की सौजन्यसे.

Trying to Stop Pollution From Killing a Lifeline, By – PETER GELLING

Indonesians collecting plastic rubbish last year for recycling on the Citarum River, the main source of household water for Jakarta.

Indonesians collecting plastic rubbish last year for recycling on the Citarum River, the main source of household water for Jakarta.

The Citarum River, which winds its way through West Java past terraced rice paddies and teeming cities, is an assault on the senses. Visitors can smell the river before they see it.

Some fishermen still make their living off the river’s fouled waters, but many are no longer casting lures. Instead, they row their boats through floating garbage, foraging for old tires and other trash they can sell.

The river, considered by many environmentalists to be among the world’s most polluted, is woven tightly into the lives of the West Javanese.

It provides 80 percent of household water for Jakarta’s 14 million people, irrigates farms that supply 5 percent of Indonesia’s rice and is a source of water for more than 2,000 factories, which are responsible for a fifth of the country’s industrial output, according to the Asian Development Bank.

Villagers living along its banks use the Citarum’s dangerous waters to wash their clothes — and themselves.

Almost everyone sees the river as something of a movable dump: a convenient receptacle for factories’ chemical-laced effluent, farms’ pesticide-filled runoff, and human waste.

As a result, in stretches of the river near Jakarta, fish have been almost wiped out, destroying the livelihoods of thousands of fishermen.

“I know the color of the river is not right,” said Sutri, the owner of a small restaurant in Bekasi, an industrial suburb of Jakarta. “But I don’t know anything about dangerous chemicals. Anyway, there is nowhere else for me to get water.”

Sutri — who like many Indonesians uses only one name — said she washed the restaurant’s dishes in the river, along with her clothes and her children.

Environmentalists blame rapid, and unregulated, industrialization and urbanization over the past 20 years for the degradation of the 5,000-square-mile river basin.

The environmental damage is already costing lives; flooding, caused by deforestation and drains clogged with garbage, is a constant problem in cities along the Citarum.

The list of woes is worrying enough that the development bank committed this month to provide Indonesia with a $500 million, multiyear loan to finance a wide-ranging cleanup and rehabilitation plan devised by the bank and the government.

The money would be used clean the Citarum and the West Tarum Canal, which connects it to Jakarta, and to create a long-term plan for how to best use the river. A portion of the loan would go toward setting up an independent organization that would become the steward of the Citarum.

But even before the bank has begun to dole out the loan, it has opposition from local civic groups. They fear

that the government is taking on too much debt and that there are inadequate protections to ensure that the poor see enough benefits and that the money is not lost to the corruption that is endemic in Indonesia.

“We are worried that the money could be lost through corruption,” said Nugraha, 30, a community activist who has been working to clean up this Jakarta suburb since he graduated from high school.

“And we are worried the farmers will be left out,” he continued. “The focus seems to be on the people of Jakarta, not the local people here.”

That the battle lines are being drawn so early, and despite the obvious need for change, is not surprising.

Dry !

Dry !

“Water wars” in the United States and elsewhere can be nasty affairs.

Like most such battles, the fight over the Citarum will revolve around the complex issues of equity, economic development and environmental protection. Coming up with a plan that satisfies everyone’s needs will be difficult.

Raising community activists’ concerns, the first $50 million of the Asian Development Bank’s loan is designated for cleaning up the canal that brings the river’s waters to Jakarta, and for additional treatment plants. Because of health concerns, residents of the city rarely drink out of the tap, opting instead for bottled water.

Christopher Morris, a water resources engineer with the development bank, says it is committed to financing projects over 15 years that will benefit all the river’s users. Not all of the projects can be done quickly, he said.

“We are taking a long-term approach while recognizing there are some things we can fix quickly,” Mr. Morris said. “But changing the behavior of the community takes a lot of careful planning and preparation.”

Among the goals: building waste treatment plants to clean household water for the Greater Jakarta area, creating more dams so that additional water will be available for growing communities like Bandung, Indonesia’s fourth largest city, and simply cleaning the river so people living near it, including fishermen, can again depend on the source of water.

The plan calls for reforesting stretches of the river basin to help erosion and landslides that clog the river and regularly cause floods in Bandung, in Bekasi and elsewhere.

The tricky part of the work will be getting the many people who rely on the river for their living, or simply to live, to agree to changes. Conflicts can arise over the allocation of water between farmers who use it for irrigation and city dwellers. And trying to get farmers to use more efficient irrigation methods, so there is more water for others, can be challenging.

The solution proposed by the Asian Development Bank and the Indonesian government is a “water council,”

River pollution in India, polluted river Yamuna at Taj Mahal.

River pollution in India, polluted river Yamuna at Taj Mahal in Delhi.

with half the representatives from government agencies and half from the communities involved and nongovernmental organizations.

What authority the council would have remains to be seen; different levels of government already disagree about water allocation.

Of particular concern to community activists is how this council might be manipulated, becoming yet another avenue for corrupt practices.

Mr. Morris said the bank had not been blind to the opportunities for the money to be misused. That, he said, is why the bank decided to parcel the loan out over many years.

“The point is to make the money available to the government in an efficient way, so they aren’t sitting with a loan and paying charges on it until they actually need to use it,” he said. “But it also allows us to put in some safeguards and implement our anticorruption policies and other policies the Asian Development Bank promotes.”


(Published: December 13, 2008, –  The New York Times)

Our Politicians Are Still Not Listening. By – Colin Gonsalves.

One would have thought that after the Bombay attack and the public outpouring of resentment against politicians, that the establishment would get its act in order. One would expect that careful thought would go into the making of proposals to combat terrorism and to keep the people secure. Instead what do we find? The same old clichés and the usual attack on human rights activists.

What the people of India expected, was that the governments would give careful thought to making the police a professional fighting force oriented towards the security of the ordinary citizens of India rather than operating, as it does now, as the protectors of politicians. They also expected that the police would eliminate from its ranks the use of torture and the vice of corruption, two aspects of policing today that make the general public both distrustful and fearful of the police.

Listening carefully, however, to the statements of BJP and Congress politicians in the media, one can find no reference to the demands of the people. Politicians are obviously distracted by the national  lections scheduled for early next year and even such a serious incident of terrorism as the Bombay attack figures even now in their consciousness as a

 Nation of Lions Leading by aDonkeys
Nation of Lions Leading by Donkeys

vote catching exercise.

In a knee-jerk reaction, GOI proposes to enact The Unlawful
Activities (Prevention) Amendment Act, 2008. Under section 15, the prosecution is to be granted upto 180 days to file a chargesheet (it is a 90 day limit today after which the accused is granted bail mandatorily), the provisions for bail are stricter, and if arms or explosives are proved to be recovered from the accused, then the court is entitled to presume that the accused has committed a terrorist act.

Indian criminal law provisions rank among the strictest in the world. In the US and the UK even after the terrorist attacks in those countries, the maximum period of detention without a chargesheet is 2 days and 28 days respectively. The provisions in India for search and seizures are the most liberal in the world.

Supreme Court decisions to the effect that even if the searches and seizures are illegal they may still be relied upon in evidence
against the accused, has given the police a free hand to do all kinds of hanky panky while conducting raids. Amendments have been made in various statutes to permit interceptions of communications.

Supreme Court decisions after 2000 have watered down the criminal law protection of accused persons and have lowered the criminal law standard of proof beyond reasonable doubt to such an extent, that international jurists are appalled by the way in which the Indian courts are convicting accused persons. Why then, with such strict laws and with such a convicting judiciary, did the Bombay attack happen with such impunity? The answer is simple. The problem in India lies not in the law but in its implementation.

This is where the main demands of the people that the police become a professional force, that law and order be separated from the investigation of crimes, and that corruption and violence be eliminated, becomes important. The Central Government also proposes to pass The National Investigation Agency Bill, 2008 which will see the setting up of a national body to oversee the investigation and prosecution of terrorist offences. Here again the approach is cosmetic rather than substantial and the aim is to impress rather than protect. The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is today a national body for the investigation of all serious crimes. The only difference between the CBI and the NIA is that the former is required to take the permission of the states prior to acting within the state, whereas the NIA can operate without consent. But if all the states are agreed, as indeed they are, that terrorism ought to be fought at the national level as well, then there ought to be no difficulty for the Central Government to consult the legislatures of the states in a transparent manner, to obtain consent for the CBI to operate throughout the country.

All that would be necessary thereafter is for the Central Government to administratively upgrade the CBI. THOUGH it must be said to the credit of the Union Government that they have not succumbed to the temptation to introduce the draconian POTA provision authorising confessions to a police officer (which rendered POTA trials farcical), the reference to Left Wing Extremism in the Statements of Objects and Reasons is disappointing.

Naxalism has deep social roots in injustice, poverty and state  violence, unlike the senseless terrorism of Pakistani agents. Like  the IRA in Ireland, it must be recognised as a political tendency and negotiated with politically. The reasons for the growth of naxalism must be understood as requiring a radical shift from the inequities of globalisation to a more socialistic programme where the common person is treated with dignity. In the present political situation however, one can only see hysteria and the lack of reason.

Courtesy By-  Colin Gonsalves,

The writer is an eminent lawyer and civil rights activist.

हॅटस् ऑफ टू यू, मि. पालव !

अच्युत पालव ऊर्फ कॅलिग़्राफी म्हणण्या एवढं पालवांच नाव या कलेशी जोडलं गेलं आहे. शब्दाना अर्थगर्भ व्यक्तिमत्व प्रदान करताना नित्यनवे अविष्कार सादर करणे हि तर त्यांची हातोटी. रोजची वर्तमानपत्र, मासिकांमधून त्यांच्या कलेचा आस्वाद वाचकाना घेता येतोच आणि त्या माध्यमांमधून ते सतत घरा-घरांत संचार करत असतात. पण जगभरात कलेच्या माध्यमातून त्यांनी जी रांगोळी घातली त्याला तोड नाही. पालव यांच्या अक्षरचित्रांनी रशियातील म्युझियममध्ये कायमस्वरूपी विराजमान होण्याचा मान पटकावला आहे. ‘युरोपियन कंटेम्पररी म्युझियम’मध्ये निवड झालेले पालव पहिले भारतीय आहेत.

अच्युत पालव

जगभरातील लोकांचा कॅलिग़्राफीतला उत्साह, काम आणि जाणिव बघुन आपल्या भारतातील विद्यार्थी मागे आहेत हे जाणून संपुर्ण देश पादाक्रांत करत अनेक कलामहाविद्यालयात स्वतः जाऊन जागृती करण्याचं काम अच्युत पालवानी केलं आहे. ही सामाजिक जाणिव आणि समाजऋणातून उतराई होण्यासाठी कलाकार खरतर कला सादर करण्यात मग्न असतो पण पालव या अवस्थेतून जागृत होऊन समाजसेवकाच्या चालीने ही भ्रमंती करतात ते पाहून त्याना सलाम करावासा वाटतो

कलाकाराच्या कलेला वेदनेनेही अंकुर फुटतात, असं असलं तरी या जातीवंत कलाकाराने भगिनी निधनाच दुःख पोटात घेऊन आपल्या महोत्सवाला हसत मुखाने सामोर जाणं हा नियतीचा खेळ म्हटलं तरी ते सोप नक्कीच नाही.

जे. जे. कलामहाविद्यालयात २१ डिसेंबर पर्यंत १० ते ७ या वेळात अच्युत पालवांच्या पुढाकाराने ‘कॅलिफेस्ट ‘ हे प्रदर्शन भरलय त्याला आपण एकदा जरुर भेट द्याच.

— नरेन्द्र प्रभू

‘ग्रंथाली’ वाचकदिन – दहशतवाद नवं रुप, नवं आव्हान !

ग्रंथाली वाचक चळवळीचे

मासिक ‘रुची’ चा डिसेंबरचा अंक

वाचण्यासाठी येथे क्लिक करावे ग्रंथाली वाचक चळवळीचे मासिक ‘रुची’ चा डिसेंबरचा अंक.

'ग्रंथाली' वाचकदिन - दहशतवाद नवं रुप, नवं आव्हान !

Terror attack in Mumbai, Indian officials, police and commandos must share the blame for mishandling the attacks. By Edward N. Luttwak

How long India
How long India ?

Those who live in Tel Aviv, New York or London need not fear a Mumbai episode. If 10 infantry-trained terrorists were to attack those cities, local police with their own hostage-rescue teams would quickly deal with them.

But in India, the reality is that local police cannot be expected to react usefully to a terrorist attack, or indeed any form of armed attack, as they would in many other countries — for example, sealing off the area and summoning help. Instead, Mumbai and India’s other mega-cities are policed by semi-illiterate constables who deal only with petty crime as they make their rounds, drinking free tea in cafes and accepting small gifts from shopkeepers for chasing away intrusive beggars. They hardly ever stop inter-religious or inter-caste violence and are reluctant to engage anyone with a firearm.

Accordingly, in Mumbai there was no police cordon around the huge Taj Mahal Palace & Tower hotel nor the quite small Nariman House of the Jewish Chabad-Lubavitch group during the sieges, so that terrorists could have been reinforced or could have escaped.

It’s not that India is unfamiliar with terrorism. According to recent data from India’s Home Ministry, about 7,000 Indians have been killed in terrorist incidents since 2004 — mostly but not exclusively by Muslim extremists. Obviously the nation has needed a much better-educated, better-paid, better-trained national anti-terrorist police unit for years, but none has been established. Thus the forces available to fight the terrorists in Mumbai were pathetically inadequate in quantity, quality or both.

That was clearly true of Maharashtra’s state anti-terrorism squad, which is headquartered less than 10 minutes from the sites of the attacks but which had a total of 35 officers — and fewer than 15 on duty. This, to protect a state population of 96 million, 18 million in Mumbai alone. The squad’s commander, Hemant Karkare — who was killed early in the attacks — was a 54-year-old investigator, not a fighter even at the level of an ordinary infantryman.


By contrast, India’s National Security Guards, formed in 1985, are well trained. But the guards are a military-style commando assault force, with no real experience in civilian hostage rescue, even though that is one of their official missions. With 7,500 trained men, they could have responded adequately in a military way, if only someone had managed to call enough of them in quickly.

The first terrorist attack was reported about 9:30 p.m. The strategy for alerting the central government failed, so it was Vilasrao Deshmukh, the chief minister of the Maharashtra state government, who got the call to decide what help was needed. He happened to be on a trip in the state of Kerala, hundreds of miles to the south. For 90 minutes, he did nothing of consequence while receiving calls on his cellphone about the attacks. Finally, at 11 p.m., he called Shivraj Patil, the home minister in charge of the nation’s security and law enforcement. (After this colossal security failure, Patil resigned Sunday. It took Deshmukh until Wednesday to do the same.)

Because Patil had no information of his own — a very peculiar situation for an interior minister anywhere — he put the key question to Deshmukh: How many commandos of the National Security Guards were needed? Deshmukh replied 200. That may have been more than enough to fight against 10 or 15 infantry-trained terrorists (they were not ninjas or samurai, after all) but was grossly inadequate to deal with even one target as big as the immense Taj hotel. Patil had no competent staff to intervene to determine the right number, which was at least 1,000.

Enough Is Enough

Enough Is Enough !

All the government commandos were in New Delhi, more than 700 miles from Mumbai. Even as the mayhem in Mumbai was being broadcast to the world, no one thought to send the commandos in the fastest way possible — by commandeering several of the passenger jets at New Delhi’s airport with crews ready to fly. Instead, an old and slow Ilyushin Il-76 and its sleeping pilots were summoned from the Chandigarh airport 150 miles away. The transport plane did not arrive in New Delhi until 2 a.m. By the time the commandos arrived in central Mumbai, it was 7 a.m., 9 1/2 hours after the first reports of attacks.

Even then, they had to act with almost no information — not even an accurate floor plan of the massive Taj hotel — and of course in grossly inadequate numbers, given the need to sweep the Taj room by room. As a result, the commandos didn’t move on the lowest-priority Nariman House of Chabad, the smallest target by far, until Friday morning, more than 40 hours after it was first entered by the terrorists on Wednesday night. They blasted their way inside, and after an interval — which could have proved fatal to any captives had any still been alive at that point — other government commandos rappelled from helicopters, in full view of TV cameras and the uncontained crowd pressing in all around. They were greatly applauded as they left after killing the terrorists and finding the five hostages dead inside.

In the end, the attacks in Mumbai were a revealing confrontation between 10 to 15 trained soldiers willing to fight and die and a hopelessly inadequate security system. But India is a democracy with a free press, and what will happen soon, after all the usual recriminations and resignations, will be the creation of a properly decentralized system, backed by an information network. It is unfortunate that the thousands of previous deaths from terrorism didn’t suffice to reform the system before the Mumbai tragedy.

Courtesy By- Edward N. Luttwak is a senior associate at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Gangajal Nature Foundation’s Photography & Documentary Competition ! गंगाजल नेचर फौंडेशनची छायाचित्र आणि महितीपट व निबंध स्पर्धा !

 गंगाजल नेचर फौंडेशनची छायाचित्र आणि महितीपट व निबंध स्पर्धा !

गंगाजल नेचर फौंडेशनची छायाचित्र आणि महितीपट व निबंध स्पर्धा !

दोन फुलांची कथा

दोन फुलांची कथा
अशी ही दोन फुलांची कथा
एक शिवाच्या पदी शोभाते
एक शवाच्या माथा

इथला निर्माल्य ही सुगंधी
तिथली माळ ही कुणी न हुंगी
इथे भक्तीचा वास फुलांना
तेथे नरक व्यथा

जन्म जरी एकाच वेलीवर
भाग्यामध्ये महान अंतर
गुळखोबरे कोणा
कुणाला मिळे पिंड पालथा

दोन फुलांचे एकच प्राक्तन
उच्च नीच हा भाग पुरातन
एक शिलेला देव मानते
एक पूजितें मृदा

निर्माल्य कुणी मंदिरातला
अर्पियला गंगा माईला
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पाचोळाही वाहत आला
फुलाफुलांची ओळख पटली
हसला जगत्नियंता