Kanpur, the largest industrial city in Uttar Pradesh with a total area of 261 square kilometers, is located
about 435 kilometers east of New Delhi. Kanpur is boarded by the river Ganges to the north and the river Pandu to the south. The census of 1991 give the population at 1.9 million; in 2001, the population rose to 2.5 million. Kanpur is divided into six administrative zones, which are further sub-divided into 100 wards (election wards). Per capita income of Kanpur is about Rs. 850.
The most important industrial activity in Kanpur is its tanning industries. Kanpur had previously been an important center for the textile industry with approximately 30 large textile mills. Most of these mills, however, have been closed. Only three mills are still in production. Currently, there are approximately 70 medium to large-scale industries and more than 5000 small scale industries. Approximately 350 tanneries with different capacities are located at Jajmau in the eastern part of the city. Production capacities of the tanneries are as follows: 225 tanneries process less than 50 hides per day; 113 tanneries process 50-200 hides per day; 10 tanneries process 200-300 hides per day; and 6 tanneries process more than 300 hides per day. There are 52 split leather producers. A number of tanneries (at least 40) are temporarily out of operation either for not possessing a preliminary effluent treatment plant or for low business profits.
A major problem regarding traffic is that there are no bridges. One bridge is under construction at this time therefore most traffic floods over the railroad crossings, which run parallel to the main road and divides the city into two parts. In the northern part of the city, the area is quite developed. However the area to the right is underdeveloped. We are in the process of constructing a sewer system for this area. Nearly 40% of the area has been covered, however a pumping station is still required and will be ready in approximately two years time (2003).
There was no sewage system in the southern part of the city, leading to the discharge of sewage into the Pandu river. Similarly, sewage was not 100% treated in the north and because of many open drains, sewage was discharged into the Ganga river causing pollution. In 1985, the government of India instituted a project called the Ganga Action Plan to address the problem of water pollution. The activities in the Ganga Action Plan are nearly 30% complete. The renovation of existing sewage treatment plants has been taken care of through the Ganga Action Plan.
Kanpur has 110 works with two links: the administrative and elected. The elected link is headed by the mayor and 110 boards, with each board electing one member. They are nominated by state governors, with a total of 120 corporation members and one mayor. One hundred and fifty mayors and the MP and MLA, members of the legislative assembly and members of Parliament, are elected official members of the corporation. On the administrative side is the chief executive under which the entire administrative system works. Kanpur possesses two main textile mills, five ordinance factories, and six main tanneries. The problem for Kanpur is providing a clean environment for the city as well as solid waste management. Additionally, because the per capita income is very low, it is difficult to provide the facilities required by the citizens. Only 200 million rupees are available as a surplus for development purposes. With the closure of the textile mills, there is an increase in the number of tanneries from 250 three years ago to 350. With the increase in industrial activities, there has been an increase in industrial waste.
Primary collection of solid waste is the duty of the health department, who are also responsible for the control of epidemics, preventive measures for different diseases, hospital administration and food control. The department also acts as additional inspectors of factories in their respective zones. Garbage is deposited in rubbish depots of various sized and makes (120 cement and concrete rubbish depots, 65 8.5 cu meter iron containers, 120 6.5 cu meter iron containers, 820 1 cu and 0.75 cu meter iron containers). We have provided mechanized lifting of garbage in the last 3 years (tractors, tippers, loaders, hydraulic vehicles).
Per capita generation of solid waste is approximately 400 Gms per day. With the additional floating population of 0.2 million, generation totals about 1,100 MT per day. Secondary collection for waste is the responsibility of the Director City Cleansing. There are four vehicle depots in the following areas of the city: Panki, Fazal Ganj, Bhagwat Dass Ghat, and Jajmau. The fleet consists of 20 loaders, 55 tippers, 4 dumpers (Biz size carrier vehicle, 8.5 cum), 16 small size carrier dumpers (6.5 cum), 12 tractors, 7 DCM, 1 dozer, 1 bulldozer (chain drive), 3 JCB, and 3 RC big refuse collectors. Waste is collected and dumped at Panki landfill where at present no treatment is conducted because of the high cost (Rs. 50/MT).
In order to streamline solid waste management in Class I cities with a population of more than 0.1 million,
the Supreme Court of India appointed a committee to study the various problems of management, with the submission of a report in March 1999. On the recommendation of the committee, the Supreme Court has fixed a time schedule for different important activities and laid down norms and standards of output of sanitary staff. The directions sanctified in the framing rules were published in the Gazette of India to invite objections from the public. After considering the objections, these rules were finalized and published for implementation from 25 September 2000. The rules apply to every municipal authority responsible for collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid waste. Every municipal authority shall, within the territorial area of the municipality, be responsible for the implementation of the provision of the rules, and for any infrastructure development for collection, storage, segregation, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid waste. Uttar Pradesh plastic and other non-biodegradable garbage ordinance of July 2000 prohibits the littering of non-biodegradable waste in public drains and sewerage system. The ordinance prohibits the use of recycled plastic for food packaging purposes. Plastic below 20 micron thickness is prohibited altogether.
The second problem in Kanpur is that of biomedical waste. An incinerator facility has been provided in most government hospitals, however there is a group of nearly 70 private persons who have established an incinerator facility themselves. KNN is working on guidelines for the Supreme Court of India. Regulations cover the following: hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, dispensaries, veterinary institutions, animal houses, pathological laboratories, and blood banks and require that the above take all steps to ensure that such waste is handled without any adverse effect on human health or the environment.
Hazardous waste is also a problem. KNN has identified a dumping site at Rooma, about 12-15 km away from the tanning industries and sewage treatment plants. The generation of hazardous waste containing chromium is about 10-15 MT per day. Engineers India Limited has been deputed as an expert by the Ganga ICD Project (a Dutch funded project) to prepare a DPR of hazardous waste at Rooma. Preliminary work has already begun by the EIL; they are expected to submit the DPR by 15 December 2001. The Central Leather Research Institute in Madras conducted a study and began a pilot project in mid-1997. Industries were established according to the project and 98% of chromium was recovered. Taking a lesson from this, most industries have taken up similar projects and have been successful in recycling resources. There must be a common recovery plant for those who are not able to afford this individually. KNN is ready to provide them 25% of their requirements. Additional funds would be provided by the government from a revolving fund with a payback schedule of 7 years.
Municipal Solid Waste Based Power Project at Kanpur: Features of project: plant capacity (21.6 MW); daily feed (1000 MT/day MSW); technology and tie-up (gasification, M/s Bright Star Environ, Australia, wholly owned subsidiary of M/s EDL Australia); total project cost (Rs. 2442.2 million).
Dutch Grant Under Ganga Action Plan: Three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are in operation in Kanpur. All three plants are located in the same area near Jajmau, on the eastern side of the city. There are two WWTPs of the upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) type; construction funded by the Indo-Dutch programme.
5 MLD UASB WWTP: This plant is designed for treatment of 5,000 m3/d of domestic wastewater. The plant functions at full capacity, but it also receives some tannery effluent, which has to be discontinued, since the tannery wastewater has adverse effects on the UASB process and on the quality of the sludge, which is used in agriculture.
36 MLD UASB WWTP: This plant is designed for treatment of 36,000 m3/d of mixed tannery and domestic wastewater. The tannery effluent, 8,000-9,000 m3/d, passes through fine and coarse screens into two circular equalization tanks with Venturi aeration. The domestic wastewater, maximum flow of 27,000-28,000m3/d, passes through similar type fine screen (3 mm slot width). The tannery effluent and the domestic wastewater are mixed, and distributed by means of 4 pumps over 2 parallel UASB reactors, with a retention time of 8 hours.
130 MDL WWTP: This plant is designed for treatment of 130,000 m3/d of domestic wastewater, consisting of primary sedimentation tanks, aeration tanks (surface aeration), clarifiers, sludge digestion and mechanical sludge dewatering. The effluent is pumped into the channel to the sewage farm. The plant is in operation from 1999; final effluent BOD is generally below 30 mg/I.
200 MLD UASB WWTP (in preparation): The construction of a fourth WWTP is in preparation. The design capacity of the plant is 200,00 m3/d of domestic wastewater. The plant is located in the south Drainage District, near the point where the COD Nala flows into the Pandu River. The design influent BOD is 230 mg/I, and the BOD Standard for the final effluent is 30 mg/I. The treated effluent will be used for irrigation, or be discharged into the Pandu River. The projected lands for irrigation are on the other side of the Pandu River.
Low Cost Sanitation Scheme: 2430 off-site toilets, beneficiaries (12490); 2366 on-site beneficiaries (12161); Community toilet – 12 (140 seats), beneficiaries (7000); Sewer Connections – 14287, beneficiaries (73487); Total beneficiaries – 105,088; 49 community toilet complexes are under construction, beneficiaries (33,000).
Expenditure: Primary Collection = 2869.00; Secondary Collection = 173.00; Workshop = 49.00; Tools & Equipment to Primary Collection = 84.00; Tools & Equipment to secondary collection = 180.00; Fuel & Oil = 213.00; Maintenance & Repairs = 51.00; Total = 3619.00
Courtesy By- Mr. G.K.Tandon, Kanpur.